Marianita Roybal, San Ildefonso Pueblo Potter
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San Ildefonso Pueblo artist Marianita Roybal is the earliest potter identified by name. Jonathan Batkin states that she was an important potter until at least 1910. She was identified and listed in the 1850 U. S. Census Report.
Long before Black-on-black pottery became the staple at San Ildefonso Pueblo, potters there had produced a variety of historic pottery types: Black-on-cream, Black-on-red and Polychrome types predominantly. Powhoge Polychrome, which was black-on-cream, in the 1850-1880 period, gave way to San Ildefonso Polychrome, starting in the 1890s, in which red paint was added to the design. Concurrently, some potters began abandoning the red paint on the rim in favor of black, around the same time. Marianita Roybal made pottery similar to this during this time.
Maria Martinez also knew Marianita Roybal (1843-c.1910). She told Kenneth Chapman in 1947 that her sister Maximiliana and her husband Crescencio painted some of Marianita’s pottery.
Reference and Recommended Reading: Pottery of the Pueblos of New Mexico 1700-1940 by Jonathan Batkin.
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